Historical Background Philosophers who study the social character of scientific knowledge can trace their lineage at least as far as John Stuart Mill. Mill, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Karl Popper all took some type of critical interaction among persons as central to the validation of knowledge claims. Mill's arguments occur in his well-known political essay On Liberty, Mill rather than in the context of his logical and methodological writings, but he makes it clear that they are to apply to any kind of knowledge or truth claim. Mill argues from the fallibility of human knowers to the necessity of unobstructed opportunity for and practice of the critical discussion of ideas.
How did current management theories develop?
People have been managing work for hundreds of years, and we can trace formal management ideas to the s. But the most significant developments in management theory emerged in the 20th century. We owe much of our understanding of managerial practices to the many theorists of this period, who tried to understand how best to conduct business.
He started the Scientific Management movement, and he and his associates were the first people to study the work process scientifically. They studied how work was performed, and they looked at how this affected worker productivity. He also advanced the idea that workers and managers needed to cooperate with one another.
This was very different from the way work was typically done in businesses beforehand. A factory manager at that time had very little contact with the workers, and he left them on their own to produce the necessary product.
With a background in mechanical engineering, Taylor was very interested in efficiency. While advancing his career at a U.
In one, he experimented with shovel design until he had a design that would allow workers to shovel for several hours straight. With bricklayers, he experimented with the various motions required and developed an efficient way to lay bricks.
And he applied the scientific method to study the optimal way to do any type of workplace task. As such, he found that by calculating the time needed for the various elements of a task, he could develop the "best" way to complete that task.
These "time and motion" studies also led Taylor to conclude that certain people could work more efficiently than others. These were the people whom managers should seek to hire where possible. Therefore, selecting the right people for the job was another important part of workplace efficiency.
Taking what he learned from these workplace experiments, Taylor developed four principles of scientific management. These principles are also known simply as "Taylorism". Replace working by "rule of thumb," or simple habit and common sense, and instead use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks.
Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency. Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.
These promote individual responsibility, and seek to push decision making through all levels of the organization.
Finding This Article Useful?Criticism of Scientific Management: by Workers, Employers and Psychologists! Scientific management provides innumerable merits but despite that it has been criticised by different sections of society. It has not been welcomed with open arms by workers, employers and psychologists.
In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of articles submitted for publication in a scholarly journal.
Before an article is deemed appropriate to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, it must undergo the following process. Scientific management was one of the first attempts to systematically treat management and process improvement as a scientific problem.
It may have been the first to do so in a "bottom-up" way and found a lineage of successors that have many elements in common. - Scientific Management This essay will critically evaluate the scientific management’s importance and its contribution in the current management context.
In this era of rapid economic development and industrial expansion of different nations, scientific management has enabled every nation to be involved in this global market. Reviewing Arguements Whether Scientific Management The topic I have chosen for my essay assignment would be option 1 which is reviewing the arguments for and against the statement whether scientific management creates efficient organizations.
Scientific management in its pure form focuses too much on the mechanics, and fails to value the people side of work, whereby motivation and workplace satisfaction are key elements in an efficient and productive organization.