The methodology section of a research paper answers two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? And, how was it analyzed?
New data results in new theories, and theories inspire experiments which are designed to test them This cyclic process propels science forwards. Any new theory must displace an old one, and each new theory therefore needs abundant evidence in its favour.
No-one will abandon the standing theory without good reason. The Science of Mind and Behaviour 8 "with some chapters on science, and offers the following as two major steps in scientific theory: Theory Construction, "an attempt to explain observed phenomena".
Hypothesis Testing, involving "making specific predictions about behaviour under certain specified conditions". The best thing about theories is that when new evidence comes to light, new theories arise to replace or modify the old ones.
Russell explains how science starts with initial observations and continually builds until major theories are brought to general acceptance through long periods of practical trial and error.
From a number of such facts a general rule is arrived at, of which, if it is true, the facts in questions are instances. This rule is not positively asserted, but is accepted, to begin with, as a working hypothesis.
If it is correct, certain hitherto unobserved phenomenon will take place in certain circumstances.
If it is found that they do take place, that so far confirms the hypothesis; if they do not, the hypothesis must be discarded and a new one must be invented.
However many facts are found to fit the hypothesis, that does not make it certain, although in the end it may come to be thought of in a high degree probable; in that case, it is called a theory rather than a hypothesis. It can even be dangerous: If data leads a researcher to claim some radical new element of cause and effect, then, there has to be a valid underlying theoretical framework in addition to the data The lack of good theory can lead people far 'down the garden path', i.
A common criticism of the theories of evolution and of the big bang is that "they are only theories". However, they misunderstand what the word "theory" means. A scientific theory that explains the facts well is accepted; whereas one that doesn't is rejected.
That something "is only a theory" does not affect whether it is accurate or not. Some example theories include the theory of gravity, and the theory that the Earth orbits the Sun. Clearly, the evidence is the important aspect of any theory!
A theory must make it clear exactly what criteria would falsify it, and therefore, the theory must be testable Richard Dawkins defines all of science in terms of its testability: The academic Karl Popper, is often cited as being the source of this requirement and it has become one of the most well-known 'rules' of scientific methodology.
Karl Popper proclaimed the principal in Logik der Forschung inpublished in Vienna. Professor Victor Stenger points out that Popper and Rudolf Carnap explored the same idea, Carnap in "Testability and Meaning" in Philosophy of Science 13therefore it appears that Popper is given undue credence as the sole purveyor of the idea by academics.
However the science historian Patricia Fara states that Popper first voiced his falsification criteria as long ago as after observing a lecture by Einstein No matter the history, it is now a very well established principal. This is because we have no way of knowing a priori that other, competing models might be found someday that lead to the same empirical consequences as the one tested.
Stenger 15 Imagine a game of hangman, where a person must guess what word is being revealed but can only see so many of the word's letters. With the evidence available, the person can guess a word - this is his theory.
The criteria by which he can be affirmed or proven wrong is through the revealing of new evidence.Student Researched Essay on The Scientific Method, why it's important and description of how scientists use it. In the end if we didn’t research or report right, many things would be different in the realm of science, technology and exploration.
1.) “Steps of Scientific Method.” Science Buddies. Oct 02, · The Scientific Method Name Removed SCI/ May 26, The Scientific Method The scientific method is a hypothesis-driven process of inquiry. The goal is to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments.
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Psychological Factors Heather Mingee Research Methods Week 10 Assignment 2 Instructor Joseph Davis Psychological Factors The scientific method is an organized way of figuring something out and normally includes six parts (Galgas, ). Research & writing for assignments.
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This book describes how one can use The Scientific Method to solve everyday problems including medical ailments, health issues, money management, traveling, shopping, cooking, household chores, etc.