Biographical sources Last page of letter from Austen to her sister, Cassandra, 11 June There is little biographical information about Jane Austen's life except the few letters that survive and the biographical notes her family members wrote. Ostensibly, Cassandra destroyed or censored her sister's letters to prevent their falling into the hands of relatives and ensuring that "younger nieces did not read any of Jane Austen's sometimes acid or forthright comments on neighbours or family members". The paucity of record of Austen's life leaves modern biographers little to work with. The heirs of Jane's brother, Admiral Francis Austendestroyed more letters; details were excised from the "Biographical Notice" her brother wrote in ; and family details continued to be elided[ clarify ] or embellished in her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austenpublished inand in William and Richard Arthur Austen-Leigh's biography Jane Austen:
Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not or do not apply the term to themselves. Those historians use the label " protofeminist " to describe earlier movements. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote.
The second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women. The third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the s.
First-wave feminism After selling her home, Emmeline Pankhurstpictured in New York City intravelled constantly, giving speeches throughout Britain and the United States.
In the Netherlands, Wilhelmina Drucker — fought successfully for the vote and equal rights for women through political and feminist organizations she founded.
Simone Veil —former French Minister of Health — She made easier access to contraceptive pills and legalized abortion —75 — which was her greatest and hardest achievement.
Louise Weiss along with other Parisian suffragettes in The newspaper headline reads "The Frenchwoman Must Vote. In the UK and eventually the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women.
By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave woman the right of custody of their children for the first time.
For example, Victoria passed legislation inNew South Wales inand the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between and Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffragethough some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexualreproductiveand economic rights as well.
This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in In this was extended to all women over Anthonywho each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote.
These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God. The term first wave was coined retroactively to categorize these western movements after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused on fighting social and cultural inequalities, as well political inequalities.
InQasim Aminconsidered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women.
The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of proposed on 24 March to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by Fernand Grenierthey were given full citizenship, including the right to vote.
Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to In Mayfollowing the November electionsthe sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the " gender gap ", stating in Le Populaire that women had not voted in a consistent way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes.
During the baby boom period, feminism waned in importance. Wars both World War I and World War II had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles.
Feminists in these countries continued to fight for voting rights. In Switzerlandwomen gained the right to vote in federal elections in ;  but in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only inwhen the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.
Three prior referendums held inand had failed to secure women's right to vote. Photograph of American women replacing men fighting in Europe, Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of family laws which gave husbands control over their wives.Lily, Lindy M.
Zart Underwater Homes, Therese Hopkins Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East (), William Ewart Gladstone By Stroke of Sword - A Romance Taken from the Chronicles of Sir Jeremy Clephane (), Jeremy Clephane, Judas Fraser, Andrew Balfour.
[This analysis was written for the Unz Review] For those interested in the military implications of the recent revelations by Vladimir Putin about new Russian weapon systems I would recommend the excellent article entitled “The Implications of Russia’s New Weapon Systems” by Andrei Martyanov who offers a superb analysis of what these new weapons mean for the USA and, especially, the US Navy.
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Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. - Analysis of The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood This novel is an account of the near future; a dystopia, where pollution and radiation has rendered countless women sterile, and the birth rates of North America are dangerously declining.
Introduction by Benjamin Quarles, The publication in of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass was a passport to prominence for a twenty-seven-year-old Negro. Up to that year most of his life had been spent in obscurity. Born on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, Douglass escaped from slavery in , going to New Bedford, Massachusetts.
Introduction Critical discourse analysis (CDA), according to Crystal ( p. ) is “a perspective which studies the relationship between discourse events, and sociopolitical and cultural factors, especially the way discourse is ideologically influenced by and can itself influence power relations in society”.