Tobacco Use More Asthma affects people of every race, sex, and age.
Pulmonary disorders have an adverse effect on pregnancy if they seriously decrease the amount of oxygen supplied to the fetus, if they make the mother desperately sick, or if they create a blood infection that is transmitted to the placenta.
Signs and symptoms The symptoms of lung disease are relatively few. Cough is a particularly important sign of all diseases that affect any part of the bronchial tree. A cough productive of sputum is the most important manifestation of inflammatory or malignant diseases of the major airways, of which bronchitis is a common example.
In severe bronchitis the mucous glands lining the bronchi enlarge greatly, and, commonly, 30 to 60 ml of sputum are produced in a hour period, particularly in the first two hours after awakening in the morning.
An irritative cough without sputum may be caused by extension of malignant disease to the bronchial tree from nearby organs. The presence of blood in the sputum hemoptysis is an important sign that should never be disregarded.
Although it may result simply from an exacerbation of an existing infection, it may also indicate the presence of inflammationcapillary damage, or a tumour. Hemoptysis is also a classic sign of tuberculosis of the lungs.
Tissue damage, in the forms of bronchitis and emphysema, is evident when the cross section of a normal lung is compared with the lungs of light and heavy smokers. The second most important symptom of lung disease is dyspnea, or shortness of breath. This sensation, of complex origin, may arise acutely, as when a foreign body is inhaled into the trachea, or with the onset of a severe attack of asthma.
More often, it is insidious in onset and slowly progressive. What is noted is a slowly progressive difficulty in completing some task, such as walking up a flight of stairs, playing golf, or walking uphill.
Asthma is a common, chronic respiratory disease Asthma has two main components that make it tough to breathe: inflammation (swelling and excess mucus build-up in the airways) and airway constriction (tightening of the muscles surrounding the airways). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Payment to a physician may be allowed for respiratory services only when the services are rendered as an integral although incidental part of the physician’s professional services in the course of diagnosis or treatment of an injury or illness.
The shortness of breath may vary in severity, but in diseases such as emphysema see below Pulmonary emphysemain which there is irreversible lung damage, it is constantly present. It may become so severe as to immobilize the victim, and tasks such as dressing cannot be performed without difficulty.
Severe fibrosis of the lung, resulting from occupational lung disease or arising from no identifiable antecedent condition, may also cause severe and unremitting dyspnea.
Dyspnea is also an early symptom of congestion of the lung as a result of impaired function of the left ventricle of the heart. When this occurs, if the right ventricle that pumps blood through the lungs is functioning normally, the lung capillaries become engorged, and fluid may accumulate in small alveoli and airways.
It is commonly dyspnea that first causes a patient to seek medical advice, but absence of the symptom does not mean that serious lung disease is not present, since, for example, a small lung cancer that is not obstructing an airway does not produce shortness of breath.
Chest pain may be an early symptom of lung disease, but it is most often associated with an attack of pneumoniain which case it is due to an inflammation of the pleura that follows the onset of the pneumonic process.
Pain associated with inflammation of the pleura is characteristically felt when a deep breath is taken. The pain disappears when fluid accumulates in the pleural space, a condition known as a pleural effusion.
Acute pleurisy with pain may signal a blockage in a pulmonary vessel, which leads to acute congestion of the affected part. For example, pulmonary embolismthe occlusion of a pulmonary artery by a fat deposit or by a blood clot that has dislodged from a site elsewhere in the body, can cause pleurisy.
Sudden blockage of a blood vessel injures the lung tissue to which the vessel normally delivers blood. In addition, severe chest pain may be caused by the spread of malignant disease to involve the pleura or by a tumour that arises from the pleura itself, such as in mesothelioma.
Severe intractable pain caused by such conditions may require surgery to cut the nerves that supply the affected segment. Fortunately, pain of this severity is rare.
To these major symptoms of lung disease—coughing, dyspnea, and chest pain—may be added several others. A wheeziness in the chest may be heard.
This is caused by narrowing of the airways, such as occurs in asthma. In the case of lung cancer, this unusual sign may disappear after surgical removal of the tumour.
In some lung diseases, the first symptom may be a swelling of the lymph nodes that drain the affected area, particularly the small nodes above the collarbone in the neck; enlargement of the lymph nodes in these regions should always lead to a suspicion of intrathoracic disease. Not infrequently, the presenting symptom of a lung cancer is caused by metastasisor spread of the tumour to other organs or tissues.
Thus, a hip fracture from bone metastases, cerebral signs from intracranial metastases, or jaundice from liver involvement may all be the first evidence of a primary lung cancer, as may sensory changes in the legs, since a peripheral neuropathy may also be the presenting evidence of these tumours.
The generally debilitating effect of many lung diseases is well recognized. A person with active lung tuberculosis or with lung cancer, for example, may be conscious of only a general feeling of malaiseunusual fatigueor seemingly minor symptoms as the first indication of disease.
Loss of appetite and loss of weight, a disinclination for physical activitygeneral psychological depressionand some symptoms apparently unrelated to the lung, such as mild indigestion or headachesmay be diverse indicators of lung disease.
Not infrequently, the patient may feel as one does when convalescent after an attack of influenza. Because the symptoms of lung disease, especially in the early stage, are variable and nonspecific, physical and radiographic examination of the chest are an essential part of the evaluation of persons with these complaints.
Defenses of the respiratory system Exposed as it is to the outside environment, the respiratory tract possesses a complicated but comprehensive series of defenses against inhaled material.
As air passes through the noselarge particles of debris are filtered out by cilia and by mucus that is secreted from the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity. The air then travels through the pharynx, which is the last portion of the upper airway, through the larynx, which is the beginning portion of the lower airways, and into the trachea.Nov 19, · Promote respiratory health through better prevention, detection, treatment, and education efforts.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by episodes of reversible breathing problems due to airway narrowing and obstruction. These episodes can range in . Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways.
Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest . The lungs are essential for human life. They work almost tirelessly, pulling in air and dumping out what can’t be used over and over, day and night. Breathing brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism.
Breathing is also essential to our ability to talk and sing. The. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer.
The respiratory system can be subdivided into an upper respiratory tract and a lower respiratory tract based on anatomical features. Quick Search Help. Quick search helps you quickly navigate to a particular category.
It searches only titles, inclusions and the index and it works by starting to search as you type and provide you options in a dynamic dropdown list..
You may use this feature by simply typing the keywords that you're looking for and clicking on one of the items that appear in the dropdown list. Advair Diskus and Advair HFA Inhalers are brand names for the drug combination of fluticasone and salmeterol. Side effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and hoarseness.
This drug treats asthma, bronchitis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Pregnancy and breastfeeding safety is included.